Historical Timeline of Japanese Mexican

Contents

Project Description

Scholars

Institutional Participants

Resources
Demographics1
Demographics2
Overview
Timelines
Directories

Symposium

Staff and Advisors

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1874
Francisco Díaz Covarruvias visits Japan, heading the Mexican Astronomy Commission in order to observe the transit of planet Venus. It influences the signing of the Treaty between Mexico and Japan and recommends Japanese migration.
 
1877-1880 and 1884-1911
The government of President Porfirio Díaz opens the door for foreign migration. Among others, Italians, Germans, English, French, Russians and Japanese come.
 
1888
Signing of the Friendship, Commercial and Navigation Treaty between Mexico and Imperial Japan. Signed by Matías Romero of Mexico and Munemitsu Mutsu of Japan. The signing takes place in Washington, D.C. on November 30. A major agreement in this treaty is the recognition of the Japanese sovereignty by Mexico, which made it possible for Japan to sign reciprocal treaties with other countries of the world.
 
1891
Creation of Department of Migration by Takeaki Enomoto. The government of Japan installs its Consulate, appointing Toshiro Fujita as the representative Consul. Mexico appoints Mauricio Wollheim as its first ambassador to Japan.
 
1891-1895
Three trips of exploration to Soconusco region, sent by Takeaki Enomoto. It would decide the location of the colony. Foundation of Japanese - Mexican Colonizer's Company elected Takeaki Enomoto as its president. This company would send emigrants.
 
Interviews of Japanese commissioner for the purchase sale of lands, first with Manuel Fernández Leal, Minister of Promotion, Colonization and Industry of Mexico and later with President of Mexico, Porfirio Díaz. Both recommends the purchase of lands in Escuintla.
 
1896
Japan promulgates the Law of 1896, replacing the Law of 1894, which regulates emigrants. Creation of more than thirty emigration companies, establishes in Tokyo, Osaka, Yokohama and Sendai Cities. Similar companies establish also in prefectures such as Kumamoto, Kyushu, Hiroshima, Okayama, Wakayama and Yamaguchi, among others.
 
Toshibumi Murota, Consul of Japan in Mexico, appointed by Takeaki Enomoto, is the negotiator for the land purchase.
 
1897
Contract of purchase-sale between Viscount Takeaki Enomoto and the governor of Mexico. Acquisition of 65,000 hectares located in Escuintla, Department of Soconusco, in the state of Chiapas.
 
The Japanese - Mexican Colonizers' Society boards 28 colonists and 6 free emigrants in Yokohama. It is led by Toraji Kusukado. They disembark the steamboat Gaelic at Port San Benito, presently Port Madero, in the state of Chiapas. (First and second types of immigrants.)
 
Foundation of Enomoto Colony.
 
Desertion of Enomoto colonists after three months of its establishment.
 
1897-1898
Attempt to reconstruct Enomoto Colony. Sending specialists: Tatsujiro Fujino, Sutezo Misumi and Tsunematsu Fuse.
 
1900-1910
Contracted Japanese workers (braceros) are employed for the construction of railroads, carbon, copper, and gold mines as well as in the sugar cane coast in Minatitlán, the state of Veracruz. It is the era in which approximately 10,000 Japanese emigrants entered. (The third type of emigrants.)
 
1910-1920
Many Japanese immigrants participate actively in the Mexican Revolution.
 
1907-1924
Japanese illegal immigrants (the fourth type of immigrants). The Law of 1907, Gentlemen's Convention, by which Japan would voluntarily stop sending its citizens to the United States. It pressures Mexico so that Japan would stop sending its citizens to Mexico. In 1924, the United States completely bans the entry of Asians to the country. As a consequence, phenomenon of illegal movement emerge. Those who could not enter the United States illegally enter Mexico and sometimes from there enter the U.S. illegally.
 
1914-1918
World War I. The migration is temporarily suspended.
 
1917-1928
Qualified Japanese migrants (the fifth type of immigrants). The convention signed between Mexico and Japan on April 26, 1917, for free execution of medical and pharmaceutical professions, dentists, midwife, and veterinarian. It is effective for the duration of 10 years. The first to arrive are some thirty physicians and dentists.
 
1921-1940
Japanese calls for, yobiyose (the sixth type of immigrants). The open door policy to the foreign immigrants is restricted in almost the entire world. In the case of Mexico, the system of yobiyose is the only way for Japanese immigrants to enter the country. The economic stability obtained by the Japanese community in Mexico makes it possible for them to apply the yobiyose system. During this period 2,950 Japanese enter the country.
 
1941-1945
World War II. The Japanese residents in Mexico who migrated from the South to the North but could not cross the border to enter the United States, establish an agricultural emporium in Mexicali, a fishing center in Ensenada, and grocery stores in Juárez City. They are obligated to migrate to the central part of the Mexican Republic. During the war, the migration is arrested in the world.
 
1942-1945
Concentration camp in Temixco, in the state of Morelos.
 
1950
Signing of San Francisco Peace Treaty. Japan resumes its relations with the world.
 
1951
Arrival of technical Japanese (the seventh type of immigrants.) Urban population and temporary settlers. These immigrants do not permanently settle in Mexico. Japanese investment starts.
 
1970 to present
Shin Issei. There is a small population of this kind of Issei.