Staff and Advisors
- The Chinese Exclusion Act is enacted, causing influx of Japanese immigrants into the U.S.
From the 1890s, Japanese immigrants are deemed "aliens ineligible to citizenship."
- (18th year of Meiji) Mass immigration of Japanese to Hawai'i starts due
to the increased need for labor on sugar plantations. Between 1885 and 1924, nearly 300,000 Japanese immigrate to
Hawai'i and the continental U.S.
- Asiatic Exclusion League is formed in San Francisco, marking the official beginning of
an organized anti-Japanese movement.
- U.S.-Japan Gentlemen's Agreement restricts Japanese immigration to the U.S.
Loopholes in the agreement result in the arrival of "picture brides" and family members.
- Japanese American communities flourish particularly in Hawai'i and along the Pacific and Rocky
Mountain regions of the United States.
- First Alien Land Law is passed in California, prohibiting "aliens ineligible to citizenship"
from owning land and restricting land lease. The U.S. Supreme Court holds these
discriminatory laws constitutional in November 1923.
- U.S. Supreme Court rules on the Takao Ozawa case, prohibiting Japanese from becoming
naturalized citizens on the basis of race.
- Immigration Act of 1924 ends Japanese immigration to the U.S. At this point, the Japanese American
population is approximately 70,000.
- The Nisei, second generation born in the U.S., become a majority in the Nikkei population.
- On December 7 (8 in Japan), the Pacific War starts. The Japanese Americans are regarded the
same as "the Japanese enemy."
- Incarceration of 120,000 Japanese Americans starts. About two-thirds of the internees are
U.S. citizens. The second generation Japanese Americans from Hawai'i and the mainland U.S. serve in the U.S. military.
- The concentration camps are closed and the resettlement process begins as Japanese
Americans rebuild their lives and communities.
- The Walter-McCarran Act allows Japanese immigrants to become naturalized U.S. citizens.
- The redress movement begins. Japanese American communities demand apology and recognition of wrongdoings from the U.S. government.
- A redress bill is signed into law providing for individual payment of $20,000 to each surviving internee,
government apology, and a $1.25 billion education fund.
- First redress payments are made and completed in 1994.